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Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine

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Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of Commiphora africana (A. Rich) Engl. (Burseraceae)

A Nuhu, U.H. Danmalam, N Ilyas, A.M. Zakariya, Z Abdulhamid, A.Z. Abubakar

Abstract


The study establishes some important pharmacognostic profile of Commiphora africana leaf and stem-bark with the hope of assisting in its proper identification as well as standardization for quality and sample purity. Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves and stem bark were carried out to determine the macromorphological, micromorphological, chemomicroscopic and some physicochemical parameters. Macroscopical studies indicated presence of leaf with trifoliate arrangement, crenate margin with ovate shape, acute apex, cuneate base, petiolate with pinnate venation. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf and was observed to be hypostomatic with anomocytic type of stomata, with numerous unicellular covering and glandular trichomes on the abaxial surface. Chemomicroscopic characters present include; lignin, starch, cellulose, tannin, suberin and calcium oxalate crystals. The physicochemical parameters evaluated include moisture contents (8.1%), total ash value (9.3%), water soluble ash (5.5%), acid insoluble ash (3.2%), ethanol extractive values (22.3%) and water extractive values (19.0%). For quantitative leaf microscopy, on the average, stomatal number (38.0) and index (25.0), palisade ratio (11.7), vein termination numbers (5.7) and vein islets (1.3). The microscopy of stem bark revealed some prominent features like the cork, prism types and microcrystal of calcium oxalate crystals, fibres, phloem parenchyma cells, secretion canal and medullary ray. The physicochemical parameters evaluated include moisture contents (8.6%), total ash value (11.3%), water soluble ash (7.0%), acid insoluble ash (2.7%), ethanol extractive values (12.3%) and water extractive values (9.3%).

Keywords: Commiphora africana, Macroscopic, Microscopic, Physicochemical parameters



http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njnpm.v20i1.10
AJOL African Journals Online