Toxicity study on the methanol fruit extract of Solanum anomalum in albino wistar rats
The study investigated the acute and sub-acute effects of methanolic fruit extract of Solanum anomalum in Wistar rats. Extraction of the powdered fruit was accomplished using 80% v/v methanol. The oral and intraperitoneal acute toxicity studies (LD50) were evaluated using Lorke’s method. Sub-acute toxicity test was conducted by administering graded doses of the extract and distilled water for 15 days. Thereafter the animals were sacrificed and their blood samples were examined for changes in haematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters. The livers, kidneys, hearts and spleens were weighed to determine the relative organ body ratios. The organs were then fixed in 10% formalin and prepared for histopathological examination. The oral LD50 was found to be above 5,000 mg/kg while the intraperitoneal LD50 was calculated to be approximately 1,150 mg/kg showing that the extract is relatively safe orally in rats. The relative organ body weight of the animals that were administered graded doses of the extract showed no statistical significant difference when compared to the group that received distilled water as control. Also, the haematological and serum biochemical parameters showed no statistical significant difference among all the groups but the histopathological analysis of the liver and spleen revealed slight haemosiderosis on the spleen at the dose of 2,000 mg/kg. Also, the liver revealed slight congestion of the central vein at the dose of 2,000 mg/kg. The histology of the heart and kidney was normal at all doses. In conclusion, methanol extract of S. anomalum fruit is not toxic up to 1,000 mg/kg in rats.
Keywords: LD50, Solanum anomalum, haemosiderosis, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology