Acuminatoside: a new anticancer compound from the maiden breast plant
Cancer is currently a leading cause of death worldwide. In Nigeria, one out of every one hundred people lives with cancer. Among various cancer types is prostate cancer, the number one reported cancer cases and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men worldwide. The maiden breast plant, Massularia acuminata used in the African and Chinese ethno-medicines as fish poison and for the management of cancer. The root, stem, and leaf of M. acuminata were extracted separately with 80% ethanol by maceration. The three extracts were tested against Prostate cancer cell line DU 145 at concentrations 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL in five replicates, using methanethiosulphonate assay (MTS, Promega®). All extracts and isolated compound were compared with standard drug (chlorambucil, 150 μg/mL). The leaf extract (ML) was the most anticancer active. ML demonstrated significant (P <0.05) percentage reduction in viable prostate cancer cell with a CC50 = 225.05±2.25 μg/mL. However, it was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in activity when compared to chlorambucil (CC50 ≥ 135.05 μg/mL). An activity-guided column chromatographic fractionation of the leaf extract (ML) monitored with TLC bioautography afforded a brown semi-solid compound characterized as 4-(3'', 3''-dihydroxy-1-mercaptopropyl) phenyl glucosylpyranoside. This compound was identified as a new phenolic glycoside, and named “acuminatoside”. At 250 μg/mL, acuminatoside demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction (75.28±4.76 %) in viable prostate cancer cells. This is the first validation of M. acuminata as an anticancer agent against Prostate cancer.
Keywords: Acuminatoside, anticancer compound, maiden breast plant, MTS assay, DU-145