Anti-sickling activities of the stem bark of three Khaya species found in Nigeria: K. senegalensis A. Juss., K. grandifoliola, (Welw) CDC., and K. ivorensis A. Chev.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 100,000 babies die from sickle cell disorder (SCD) in Nigeria every year, making it the highest sickle-cell endemic country in Africa. WHO also stated that over 500,000 babies with severe forms of sickle cell disorder are born worldwide, with majority in low and middle income countries. There has been no cure for this disease, even after over a century of research into this disorder. Sickle cell disease is managed by the traditional medical practitioner using medicinal plants or herbs especially in the developing countries among the lower economic strata of the population and one of such herbs used is Khaya species which are generally called Mahogany in English and Oganwo by the Yoruba speaking people of Nigeria. Three species are found along the Western African region and they are Khaya senegalensis (KS), Khaya grandifoliola (KG) and Khaya ivorensis (KI). Therefore, in this study the in vitro activities of the cold and hot extracts of the stem barks of the three Khaya species used in the management of SCD were evaluated using standard anti-sickling methods of inhibitory and reversal of sickled red blood cells. Sodium metabisulphite (2%) was used to induce sickling while vanillic acid and p-hydroxyl benzoic acid were used as positive controls. The three species of Khaya (KS, KG and KI) stem barks showed antisickling activities for inhibition against sickling of red blood cell (RBC) 51.77% ± 1.47, 65.55% ± 1.65, 80.71% ± 2.93 and reversal of sickled red blood cell 44.95% ± 2.00, 43.28% ± 2.80, 41.61% ± 1.22 respectively and could be recommended for further development into herbal remedy in the management of sickle cell disease.