Anti-trichomonal and cytotoxic activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var. anthelminticum herb essential oil from Nigeria
Essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. var anthelminticum (Chenopodiaceae) is known to exhibit various biological activities and, is known to be toxic. In line with the reported activity of this plant, we investigated the hydro distilled whole essential oil of C. ambrosioides growing wild in Nigeria, for its anti-trichomonal and cytotoxic activities. This was with a view to establishing its possible sub toxic level of activity. The antitrichomonal activity was investigated by incubating the culture and the various concentrations of the oil in 96-well microtitre plates at 37 oC and observing for growth. The cytotoxicity assay involved exposing fixed bovine erythrocytes to various concentrations of the oil and observing for haemagglutination. The antitrichomonal test at a concentration range of 0.003908 to 2.0 ìg/ml, revealed remarkable activity which surpassed that of Metronidazole. For cytotoxicity evaluation, Haemaglutination (HA) assay, using bovine erythrocytes, revealed that the oil displayed very low cytotoxicity (HA titre = 0.16) against the fixed blood erythrocytes. The oil has potentials of possible substitute for metronidazole and can also be considered safe for use.
Keywords: Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum, essential oil, anti-trichomonal activity, cytotoxic activity, Haemaglutination assay