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Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of <i>Waltheria Indica</i> Linn whole plant

B. Rafiu
I.O. Lawal
M.B. Olaniyi


Waltheria indica is a promising medicinal plant belonging to family Malvaceae, which many biological activities of the solvent extracts of its various parts have been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the minerals, crude fibre and fat contents, the phytochemical constituents as well as the antioxidants activity of the powder sample of W. indica whole plant. Fresh sample of whole W. indica plant was collected and airdried at room temperature. The mineral constituents were determined by spectrophotometry. The crude fibre, fat contents and the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical compositions were determined using standard analytical procedure. The antioxidants activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays. The mineral analysis results revealed the presence of micro and macro nutrients such as potassium, calcium, magnesium and manganese among others which are within the acceptable health range. The values (23.8%; 0.15%) obtained for both crude fibre and fat contents were reasonable. The qualitative phytochemical screening established the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and phenol. Steroids are in abundance while Cardiac glycosides are absent. The quantity of alkaloids (1.9%), saponins (1.4%), flavonoids (3.1%) and tannins (17422μg/GAE) are in appreciable amount which may be responsible for its various activities. W. indica showed good inhibitory scavenging activity and better reducing ability  compared to ascorbic acid. The results obtained from this study provide further scientific evidence to support the ethno-medicinal information on the uses of W. indica in the treatment of various health issues.