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A Review of Potentials of Black Pepper (<em>Piper Nigrum</em> L.) to Replace Antibiotics in Monogastric Animal Nutrition

EK Ndelekwute
IR Igwe
HO Uzegbu


This review was conducted to ascertain the potentials of black pepper as performance enhancement feed additives in the diets of monogastric animals in place of pharmaceutical antibiotics. Black pepper is a spice grown in the tropical areas of the world with pungent characteristics and it is noted for tasting hot. A climbing plant which can grow to a height of 1,500 metres, traded worldwide, it is of significance in human nutrition and medicine. Black pepper seeds are tiny but bigger than alligator pepper. It is made up of essential oils, acids, esters, alcohol and phenols. The essential oils which gives it its characteristic flavor is basically composed of group of organic compounds called terpenes. Terpenes give black pepper its antibacterial property. The essential oils could perforate the bacteria cell to exert its antibacterial property. Other potentials of black pepper include its ability to increase saliva secretion, hydrochloric acid, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice and mucus and hence immune stability. Negative effect of rancidity both in the feed and the body could be reduced by black pepper by counteracting free radicals (e.g. OH-). Black pepper improves nutrients digestibility, absorption and reduces intestinal fermentation. On the other hand black pepper is susceptible to mold attack and therefore should be well stored.

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eISSN: 1118-6267