Evaluation of nutrients, phytochemical and acceptability of bread produced from composite flour of wheat and watermelon seed
Background: Watermelon seed is usually discarded after eating the flesh and the rind of the fruit. The use of the seeds could be diversified such as incorporating the flour in wheat pastries.
Objective: The study evaluated the chemical and sensory attributes of bread produced from wheat and watermelon seeds flours.
Methods: Watermelon seeds were washed, drained, sun dried for 45 hours and milled into fine flour (WMSF) and mixed with wheat flour in ratios of 20:80 (B); 30:70 (C); 40:60 (D) and 50:50 (E). Whole wheat flour (A) served as the control. The 5 samples were used to produce bread which were chemically analysed using standard methods. A 5-point Hedonic scale was used for sensory evaluation of the bread samples. Descriptive statistics was used to present the data, ANOVA was used to compare mean and Post Hoc analysis with turkey test to separate the means at p-value < 0.05 level of significance.
Results: The WMSF contained higher antinutrients than WF. The ash, fat, crude fibre, protein sodium, calcium and potassium contents increased as the ratio of WMSF increased. Carbohydrate was comparable (p > 0.05) in samples A – D but differed significantly (p < 0.05) with sample E (39.63%). The vitamins were highest in sample A. There was a decrease in the amount of amino acids when WMSF was added to WF. Flavonoid was highest in the sample E. The samples A-C had comparable (p > 0.05) general acceptability.
Conclusion: Bread sample B compared favourably nutritionally and acceptability with 100% wheat bread
Keywords: Watermelon seed, bread, wheat flour, composition, acceptability,