Association Between Dietary Pattern And Severity Of Pain Crisis In Adolescents With Sickle Cell Anaemia Attending A Tertiary Health Facility In Northwestern Nigeria
Background: Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited chronic disease with clinical manifestations arising from polymerization of haemoglobin leading to the deformity of red blood cells into a sickled shape.
Objective: This study assessed the dietary pattern and severity of pain crisis in adolescents with sickle cell anaemia.
Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional survey. Fifty consenting participants with a diagnosis of sickle cell anaemia aged 10 to 19 years were enrolled in this study. Severity of pain crisis was evaluated using a modified Wong-Baker's Pain Scale. Food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain food consumption patterns. Data generated was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Cross tabulation and Chi-square were used to determine relationships between variables and statistical significance was established at p<0.05.
Results: All the participants were single with 54 % (n/50) female and 60 % (n/50) of them had at least secondary education. Mean age of participants was 14.3±2.8years. Adolescents who had no pain crisis were 28 % (n/N) while 42 % (n/N), 18 % (n/N) and 12 % (n/N), had mild, moderate and severe pain respectively. Dietary pattern consisted mostly of cereals, roots and tubers, milk and milk products consumed with vegetables being the least consumed. Roots and tubers, milk and milk products showed significant negative relationship with pain severity (p=0.025 and p=0.019 respectively) while meal skipping showed significant positive relationship with severity pain (p=0.034).
Conclusion: Poor dietary practices was associated with the severity of pain crisis of the adolescents living with SCA.
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