GC–MS profile, anti-seizure and anti-pyretic activities of palm kernel nut oil and its isolate, N-Octanoic acid from specially breed palm kernel Elaeis guineensis
PURPOSE: Palm kernel nut oil (PKNO) from palm fruit of a rare breed of Elaeis guineensis (virescens), and one of the species belonging to the Elaeis genre of arecaceae family was subjected to Gas chromatography - Mass spectroscopic studies as well as anti-seizure and anti-pyretic studies. It is used in South-Eastern part of Nigeria as antipyretic and anti-seizure agents especially in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical contents of PKNO using GC-MS and to investigate the antiseizure and antipyretic properties of PKNO using animal model.
METHOD: 1500 g Palm Kernels (PK) of the rare breed collected from Abia State were cracked open and the nuts (1000 g) poured into steel vessel and heated until oil was produced after charring the nuts. The oil (PKNO) was analyzed using GC-MS to determine its chemical composition. Yeast induced hyperthermia method was used for anti-pyretic studies while strychnine sulphate induced method was used for anti-seizure studies. PKNO and Octanoic acid (0.5 mg/kg ,1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (IP).Paracetamol (0.15mg/kg) was used as reference standard for anti-pyretic assay while epilim and tegretol (0.14mg/kg, resp.) were used as reference standards for anti-seizure assay.
RESULTS: The major component identified in the extract include: Dodecanoic acid,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester(19.36 %),n-Hexadecanoic acid(15.49 %),Dodecanoic acid( 12.51 %),Myristic acid ( 6.47 %), Dodecanedioic acid (3.93 %),n-Acetylpyrrolidone (3.67 %) , Thiazole (0.98 %) and Octanoic acid, OA ( 3.19 %).The anti-seizure results showed that doses of PKNO and OA used had Significant (p<0.02) anti-seizure activities by delaying the on-set of seizure from time of induction to time of first seizure observed. In yeast induced hyperthermia model, PKNO exhibited good level of anti-pyretic activities by direct reduction of pyrexia with the highest dose, 2.0 mg/kg. The PKNO and OA are proven to be safe till 3000 μl/kg as indicated by LD50 results.
CONCLUSION: PKNO and its components mainly fatty acids, thiazole, and n- acetylpyrrolidone are potent and promising agents with anti-pyretic and antiseizure activities.
Keywords: Anti-Seizure, anti-pyretic, Octanoic acid, elaeis virescens, GC-MS, Palm kernel nut oil (PKNO)
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