Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Triclisia subcordata Oliv.(Menispermaceae) towards its standardization
Background: Triclisia subcordata Oliv. from the family Menispermaceae has been reported for anti-inflammatory, internal wound healing and anticancer activities in ethnomedicine.
Objectives: The study was designed to carry out pharmacognostical investigation on the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaf and petiole of Triclisia subcordata to determine its macro and microscopic characteristics.
Materials and Methods: Macroscopic and organoleptic evaluations were carried out on the plant using standard procedures. Microscopic evaluation was done using a light microscope to study the epidermis and transverse sections of the leaf and petiole. Chemo-microscopy of plant sample was done for cell inclusions. The solvent fractions were analysed by the use of thin layer chromatoghraphy for the constituents. Powdered sample and leaf extract were subjected to phytochemical screening and to fluorescence analysis using different organic solvents.
Results: Macroscopically, the leaves have a cordate base, an entire margin, caudate apex and a glossy surface. The microscopic evaluation shows the presence of paracytic stomata, unicellular, uniseriated-covering trichomes with an acute apex. The chemo-microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, fats and oils. Phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, while flavonoids were absent. The thin layer chromatography showed spots of different retardation factors indicating the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites. The fluorescence analysis also revealed the presence of different colours, which could be employed for the identification of the classes of compounds present in the plant.
Conclusion: The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.
Keywords: Triclisia subcordata, Standardization, Microscopy, Phyto-constituents