Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial topical creams from ethanol extract of Vernonia ambigua leaves
Background: Antimicrobials of plant origin have enormous therapeutic potential. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases as well as ameliorating some of the untoward effects that are often associated with synthetic antimicrobials.
Objective: This study was conducted to formulate and investigate the antimicrobial property of ethanol extract of Vernonia ambigua topical cream formulation.
Method: The ethanol extract of the dried leaves was prepared by maceration and the filtrate obtained was concentrated to dryness. It was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as test organisms. The ethanol extract was formulated into a cream and evaluated for physicochemical and antimicrobial properties.
Result: Percentage yields for the ethanol extraction was 15.38% w/w. The pH range of the formulated creams was between 4.56 and 6.89; the viscosity ranges between 16500 and 51300 mPas. All formulated creams were stable. The three bacteria used were sensitive to both the ethanol extract and the formulated creams, though their zones of inhibition differ slightly. The ethanol extract was not effective against Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) when the ethanol extract was applied was 100 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL, and 12.5mg/mL for E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, respectively.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the ethanol extract and the formulated cream have antimicrobial properties and there was no loss of activity on formulation of the extract into a cream.
Keywords: Vernonia ambigua, Creams, Antimicrobial, Microorganisms, Ethanol extract
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