Evaluation of the Phytochemical Constituents, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of the Ethanol Extract of Acanthus Montanus (Acanthaceae) Leaf

  • UE Odoh
  • CO Ezugwu
  • NC Onwugbenu
  • PO Osadebe

Abstract

The methanol leaf extract of Acanthus montanus was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rats. The effects of the extract on acute inflammation were studied in carrageenan and dextran-induced paw oedema in rats. Analgesic effect of the extract was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing and the hot plate method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity test on the extract were also carried out. The extract at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg./kg showed a significant (P < 0.05) and dose dependent inhibition of acute paw oedema-induced by carrageenan (43.01, 54.30 and 67.00 %) and dextran (39.00, 47.00 and 54.00 %) respectively. The activities were comparable to that of diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg,) The extract at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) analgesic effect against acetic acid induced writhing (44.75, 55.06 and 61.31 %) and hot plate tests (23.41, 39.65 and 46.63 %) respectively. The activity was compared with that of aspirin (standard drug). The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids and steroids. The LD50 was estimated to be 1650. 04 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. This study justified the use of Acanthus montanus against pain and inflammation in herbal medical practice.

Keywords: Acanthus montanus, pain, inflammation, acute toxicity, analgesic

Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8 No 1 pp. 122 - 128 (September 2010)

Author Biographies

UE Odoh
Department of Pharmacognosy University of Nigeria, Nsukka
CO Ezugwu
Department of Pharmacognosy University of Nigeria, Nsukka
NC Onwugbenu
Department of Pharmacognosy University of Nigeria, Nsukka
PO Osadebe
Department of Pharmceutical Chemistry, University of Nigeria Nsukka
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