Sub-Chronic Hepato-Toxicity Evaluation of the Aqueous- Ethanol Extract of the Leaf of Spondias Mombin in Rats

  • TJN Okonkwo
  • O Okorie
  • IT Nzekwe

Abstract

Spondias mombin leaf used traditionally in Nigeria in the management of some chronic ailments was analysed to detect and quantify its phytochemical, anti-nutrient and heavy metal contents. Following a sub-chronic oral administration of the 80 % aqueous-ethanol leaf extract at 250 and 1000 mg/kg dose levels, for 3 weeks, to Wistar albino rats, its effect on some hepatic and haematological indices was determined. This was done by in vivo assay of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum haemoglobin (Hb) level. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytates, oxalates, tannins, saponins, triterpines, glycosides and resins. Among the heavy metals, iron and aluminium were dominant, while cadmium, mercury and lead were detected at micro quantities. The levels of anti-nutrient phytate, oxalate, tannins, resins and cyanide were found to be 7.85, 2.57, 2.51, 0.40, and 0.04, percent respectively. The extract induced an inconsistent but significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb) value. There was significant decrease in serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP of rats treated with 250 and 1000 mg/kg oral doses of the extract (p < 0.05). At the upper dose, however, ALP values were slightly higher than those of the control normal animals. The findings indicated that extract of Spondias mombin at the oral dose of 1000 mg/kg is not toxic in albino rats.

Keywords: Spondias mombin, haematological parameter, hepatic function indices, medicinal plants

Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8 No 1 pp. 183 - 187 (September 2010)

Author Biographies

TJN Okonkwo
Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nigeria
O Okorie
Pharmaceutics/Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
IT Nzekwe
Pharmaceutics/Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
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