Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal function and select serum elements in female subjects using combined oral contraceptive
Summary: Drugs and life style choices such as alcohol consumption and smoking are capable of independently altering levels of essential trace elements as well as tissue or organ function. The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive for at least 5 years as well as 30 age-matched control women who are using rhythm method as birth control method were recruited from drinking joints/bars by random sampling technique. Serum trace element concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and K+, Na+, albumin, globulin, total protein, urea and creatinine were also determined. Data obtained were analyzed using Student‘t’ test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). Na+ was significantly higher in combined oral contraceptive users compared with controls (p<0.05), whereas Mg was decreased (p<0.05). Co, Mn, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, K+ were not significantly different in combined oral contraceptive users compared with the controls (p>0.05). MANOVA results revealed that binge drinkers/smokers group recorded a significant lower (p<0.05) magnesium level than the passive smokers/social drinkers group and controls. The results of this study suggest that subjects using combined oral contraceptive, consuming alcohol and exposed to cigarette smoke may be at greater risks of diseases linked with magnesium depletion.
Keywords: combined oral contraceptive; magnesium, renal function, alcohol, cigarette