Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male wistar rats
The effects of different doses of cadmium (CD) on some biochemical, hormonal and histopathological parameters of the liver, kidney and testes of the Wister rate were investigated. Cadmium (CD) in the dose range 0-40mg/kg while causing a time- and dose-dependent decrease of the basal serum levels of alkaline phosphatese (ALP) also caused a dose-dependent increase in the serum concentration of the acid and
prostatic acid phosphatases. The value of the ALP changed from 148.7±1.0 IU/L in the control to 53.7±0.098 at 40mg/kg of cadmium. While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6±0.72 and 7 ±Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40mg/kg of CD. Furthermore Cadmium also caused positively correlated dose- and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, vacuolation, destruction of the seminal epithelial layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, Oedema of the seminal epithelia layers, focal necrosis of nucleus, oedema of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of spermatogenesis. CD also caused granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm, enlargement of sinusoids with kupffer cells, haemorrhage and apoptosis of cells. Finally pre-treatment with vitamin C (0.0015/kg), vitamin E (1.51/gm) and selenium (0.25mg) which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the liver, kidney and testes. These results may be explained by the oxidational/antioxidational properties of these xeonobiotics and their mechanisms of actions.
Key words: vitamin C, cadmium, kidney, testes, hormones, antioxidants