Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%), Copper (1%), Iron (5%), Nickel (5%), Cadmium (1%), Salinity (1%), Bacteria (1%) for time variation; and Sulphate (1%), Chemical Oxygen (5%),Nickel (1%), Arsenic (1%), Zinc (1%), Cadmium (1%), Bacteria (1%) for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%), Nickel (1%), for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.
KEYWORDS: water quality, physiochemical, microbia, spatial, river water, consumption, ANOVA
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