Trends of tuberculosis prevalence and treatment outcome in an under-resourced setting: The case of Enugu state, South East Nigeria
Background: The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria is high. Unfortunately, the data from the TB programme of the States’ ministries of health are usually unpublished, which possibly contribute to the prevailing ignorance and poor attitude of Nigerians to the disease. This study determined the trends of TB burden and treatment outcome in Enugu state, Nigeria; and relate the State’s disease burden to that of the Nation. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of secondary data from the TB control programme, Ministry of Health, Enugu state, the National annual report of 2008, and World Health Organisation (WHO) TB database for the 10-year period of 2000-2009. Results: The number of female TB cases was higher than males within the 0-14 age group only. The annual number of all TB cases showed a rising trend from 914 cases in the year 2000 to 1684 in 2009; but the proportion of new sputum smear (ss+) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases declined (Trend X2 = 7.37, P = 0.007). The average number of extra-pulmonary TB cases increased fourfold from 2000-2004 to 2005-2009 (36 versus 150 cases). The median treatment success rate was 82% (range: 78-85). For the period 2004-2008, 2.0% of all new ss + PBT cases reported in Nigeria, originated from Enugu state. The proportion of new ss + PTB reported in Enugu state was significantly higher than national value (59.6% versus 52.6%) [P < 0.001, OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.40)]. Conclusion: The burden of TB in Enugu state of Nigeria had increased over the period reviewed. However, the State’s contribution to the disease burden in Nigeria was low.
Keywords: Burden, Enugu state, Nigeria, tuberculosis