Pattern and outcome of Anaemia in Children Managed at the Federal Medical Centre, Azare.

  • O.A Adegboye
  • H Ahmed

Abstract

Anaemia remains a common presenting clinical problem in children in developing countries of the world. It is a manifestation of some diseases and it is often multifactoral in origin.
This retrospective study was to determine the prevalence, aetiology, presentation, severity and outcome of anaemia among children admitted into the Paediatric ward of the FederalMedical Centre (FMC), Azare, Nigeria over a 5- year period.
The admission records of children with anaemia over a 5-year period (1 January 2002 to 31 December 2007) were reviewed. Information extracted for the study included: age, gender, symptoms and signs at presentation, primary diagnosis (cause of anaemia), complication(s) of anaemia,
PCV before and after transfusion, haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern and outcome of admission. The records of 2,766 children admitted during the
period under study were analysed out of which 152 of them had anaemia due to various conditions; giving a prevalence of 5.5%. Of those with anaemia, 98 (64.5%) were males and 54 (35.5%) females; giving a M:F ratio of 1.8:1. The mean age of the children with anaemia was 4.0±0.51 years. (Range, 0.33-13 years),with 102 (67%) under 5 years of age.
Themain symptomat presentation was fever in 132 (86.8%) patients, while pallor was the most frequent physical sign in all the patients. Malaria was the leading cause of anaemia with asexual form of being present
in 93 (61.2%) of the patients, 68 (44.7%) had sickle cell disease. Other identified causes include PEM in 13 (8.6%) sepsis in 8 (5.3%) and G-6-PD deficiency in 3 (2%). Anaemic heart failure in 52 (34.2%), altered sensoriumin 34 (22.4%) and convulsion in 21 (13.8%); were the
complications in the patients. Sixteen of the children with PCV less than 10% at admission, including 3 with PCV less than 5%, died giving a case fatality of 10.5%.
Anaemia still remains a major problem in childhood. Emphasis should be given to efforts that would prevent severe anaemia, such as prompt and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination
therapies and provision of good nutrition. Regional blood transfusion centres that would guaranty effective and safe blood at an affordable cost should be established.

Keywords:
Anaemia; severemalaria
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 2229-774X
print ISSN: 0300-1652