Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus
Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower myocardial function independent of age, sex, body size, and arterial blood pressure.
Objective: The study is to investigate left ventricular geometry in Nigerians with Type II Diabetes mellitus.
Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and it comprised 75 consecutive patients with type II diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension. Using a structured pre-evaluated questionnaire, the demographic and clinical data were obtained. All subjects had two dimensional (2D) and 2D derived M-mode echocardiography using Sonoline G60s Ultrasound imaging system with 4.2 MHZ transducer equipped with simultaneous ECG tracing.
Results: A total of 75 consecutive type II diabetic patients with or without hypertension were recruited into the study. There were 18(24.0%) hypertensive-diabetic and 12(16.0%) normotensive-diabetic males and Thirty-four (45.3%) hypertensive-diabetic and 11(14.0%) normotensive-diabetic were females. Hypertensivediabetic males had significantly higher left ventricular mass compared to normotensive-diabetic counterpart 207.05±41.5g and 156.00±27.1g P = 0.001. Similarly, left ventricular mass index was found to be higher in hypertensive-diabetic males than their normotensivediabetic counterpart 114.50±29.2g/m2 and 92.28±20.5g/m2 P = 0.014. Hypertensive-diabetic female significantly had higher LVM compared to the normotensive-diabetics 196.06±41.5g and 161.54±31.6g P = 0.016. Left ventricular mass index was also found to be higher in hypertensive diabetic female than their normotensive counterpart 118.52±27.8g/m2 and 95.75±23.0g/m2 P = 0.019. Hypertensive-diabetics had predominantly concentric left ventricular hypertrophy compared to the normotensive-diabetics 36(69.2. %) and 5(21.7%) P = 0.001
Conclusion: The study reported that hypertensivediabetics have predominantly concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, higher left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index compared to normotensive-diabetic. Female hypertensive-diabetic had predominantly concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, while male hypertensive-diabetic and normotensive-diabetic had predominantly concentric left ventricular remodelling.
Keyword: Left ventricilar geometry, Type II Diabetes mellitus, Nigerians