Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression among women visiting postnatal clinic in a tertiary health institution in southeast Nigeria
Background: Postnatal depression (PND), a major health problem, can have deleterious effects on new mothers, their infants and their family. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon in terms of identification, diagnosis and treatment in our environment.
Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and correlates of PND among postnatal attendees in a tertiary health institution in South-East Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional study in which women visiting Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH) Amaku, postnatal clinic from 1st. March- 31st May, 2017 were recruited. Data were collected using Socio-demographic Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A score of 10 and above was considered a likely case of PND. One hundred and thirty two (132) self-administered questionnaires were completely filled and analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics including means, frequencies, X2 –test at the 95% confidence level (CL) were used in analysis. Logistic regression was applied to identify the independent predictors of PND risk.
Results: The prevalence of PND among the women was 33.3%. PND showed significant association with maternal age (p=0.027), low socio-economic status (p=0.037), parity (p=0.031), mode of delivery (p=0.023), type of delivery (p=0.025) and lack of emotional support (p=0.001).
Preterm delivery (OR=2.9), caesarean delivery (OR=3.7), low socio-economic status (OR= 4.1) and lack of emotional support (OR=5.8) from husband were independent risks factors for PND.
Conclusion: The prevalence of PND, 33.3% among postnatal women is high. Screening and management of PND should be an important part of postnatal services so as to improve maternal and infant wellbeing.
Keywords: Screening, risk factors, 4-6 weeks, post-delivery, maternal, infant, wellbeing