Depressive Disorders Among In-School Adolescents: How Prevalent in Anambra State, Nigeria
Background: Depressive disorders are the leading causes of ill-health and disability globally. Depression among adolescents is usually associated with a range of adverse later outcomes which include suicidality, and general poor physical and mental health.
Objective: To determine and compare the prevalence of depressive disorders among in-school adolescents in urban and rural areas of Anambra State.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional analytical study of urban and rural in-school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 1187 secondary school adolescents in government-owned schools in Anambra State was selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was the study instrument.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 15±2 years. The overall prevalence of depression was 12.5%. The proportion of urban participants identified with depression was significantly higher than that of their rural counterparts (14.5% versus 9.6%). Multiple regression showed that increased odds of developing depression are associated with urban setting (p = 0.001), female gender (p=0.018), and late adolescence (p=0.025).
Conclusion: This study showed that depressive disorders are prevalent among in-school adolescents in Anambra State, with some of the associated factors being urban setting, female gender and late adolescence. There is need for multi-sectoral intervention programs to address these identified factors.
Key Words: In-school adolescents, Depressive disorders, Nigeria, Urban-rural, Patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)