Clinical Profile and HIV/AIDS Prevalence of Patients with Malignancies in South-West Nigeria
AbstractBackground: Clinical features of HIV/AIDS and various malignancies are similar. Clinical profiles and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Nigerian cancer patients have been poorly documented.
Aim: To identify the patterns of clinical presentations in patients with malignancies and to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in cancer patients.
Methodology: It was a prospective study of patients who were attending the Oncology Clinics of the UCH Ibadan. All the first 100 patients with malignancies seen during the period of the study were included in the study. Data was analyzed using Epi info software package. Test of significance was done using the Chi-square and Fisher’s exact probability test with the statistical significance set at p <0.05.
Results: A total of 100 patients were studied, 6% had both malignancies and HIV sero-positivity, 94% had only malignancies without HIV infection (age range: 7months-80years). Females made up 59%, with a male: female ratio 1:1.4. The common clinical features were weight loss (62.0%), glandular body swellings (28.0%) and prolonged fever (25.0%). Persistent fever >1month, weight loss >10% body weight and unexplained diarrhoea >1month were present in 66.7%, 83.3% and 16.7% HIV sero-positive patients, respectively, and in 22.3%, 60.6%, and 5.3% HIV sero-negative patients, respectively. There was a significant statistical relationship between HIV infection, fever (p=0.03) and oral lesions (p =0.001). Weight loss was more common in HIV sero-positive patients (83.3%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV associated malignancies is 6% in this environment. Although weight loss is a known feature of both HIV infection and malignancies, it was more common in patients with both malignancies and HIV infection than those without HIV infection.