Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity

  • Waidi Folorunso Sule
  • Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

Abstract

Introduction: Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods: in order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Results: Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. Conclusion: While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes.

Pan African Medical Journal 2016; 23

Author Biographies

Waidi Folorunso Sule
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, Osun State University, PMB 4494, Oke-Baale, Osogbo, 230212, Osun State, Nigeria
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Published
2016-07-10
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1937-8688