Factors associated with tuberculosis treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients attending tuberculosis treatment centres in 2016-2017 in Mogadishu, Somalia
Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) reported that tuberculosis (TB) was a major health problem and the second leading cause of mortality globally. An estimated 1.8 million TB deaths were reported in 2015. In Somalia, the average TB incidence was 274 cases per 100,000 people in 2014; prevalence was 513 per 100,000 population; and mortality rate excluding human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/TB co-infection was 64/100,000. In addition, the prevalence rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are still high, 5.2% among new cases and 40.7% for retreatment cases. The objective of this study was to determine individual and institutional level factors associated with TB treatment outcomes (TB-TOs) among patients attending TBTCs in Mogadishu.
Methods: The study design was cross-sectional, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaires and key in-depth interviews in 2016/2017. Qualitative data was coded using NVIVO8 and quantitative data analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% confidence interval using SPSS20 software.
Results: The study used a sample of 385 TB patients. There were 315(81.8%) successful TB-TOs. Individual level factors-marital status, education level, HIV status, treatment category and knowledge on TB influenced TB-TOs (p-value < 0.05). Being married, educated, HIV-negative, new treatment case and knowledgeable on TB increased odds of successful TB-TOs (OR > 0, p value < 0.05) compared to other patients. TBTCs factors did not influence TB-TOs (p-value > 0.05).
Conclusion: TB-TOs were mainly affected by patient individual factors. There was need for patient education on TB management and treatment; and improved patient-health provider relationship.
Keywords: Tuberculosis in Somalia, tuberculosis treatment outcomes, treatment centers