Pattern and outcome of acute kidney injury among Sudanese adults admitted to a tertiary level hospital: a retrospective cohort study
Introduction: Little is known about the pattern and outcome of Acute Kidney injury (AKI) in Sudan. This study aimed to determine the etiology and outcome of AKI among Sudanese adults. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary level hospital, Soba University Hospital, Sudan. The medical records of all adults admitted to hospital from the 1st of January to 31st of December 2014 were reviewed. The diagnosis and severity of AKI was defined as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations. Results: The medical records of 6769 patients were reviewed. AKI was diagnosed in 384 patients (5.7%); being community acquired in 82.6% of cases. Sepsis, volume depletion, obstructive uropathy, heart failure, acute glomerulonephritis and severe malaria were the commonest causes of AKI diagnosed in 44%, 38.5%, 8.9%, 5.7%, 4.7% and 3.1% of patients, respectively. Following treatment complete renal recovery was seen in 35.7% of patients; whereas 31.2% of patients died. Predictors of increased risk of death were old age [OR 1.03, 95% CI (1.01-1.057); P=0.003], presence of chronic liver disease [OR 2.877, 95% CI (1.5-5.5); P=0.001], sepsis [OR 2.51, 95% CI (1.912-4.493);P=0.002] and the severity of AKI [OR 3.873, 95% CI(1.498-10.013);P=0.005]. Conclusion: AKI was diagnosed in 5.7% of adults admitted to hospital. Most patients were having community acquired AKI. Old age, the presence of chronic liver disease, sepsis, and the severity of AKI as per KDIQO staging were significant predictors of mortality.