Vascular hyperreactivity in black Cameroonian hypertensive and normotensive patients: A comparative study
Introduction: Vascular hyperreactivity is a risk factor and a factor predicting hypertension (high blood pressure). Unlike other continents where several studies were carried out, it has rarely been studied in black Africa in general and in Cameroon in particular.
Methods: Vascular reactivity was measured by the cold test. Vascular hyperreactivity was defined as an increase in blood pressure > 20 mmHg for systolic and/or > 15 mmHg for diastolic. Khi2, Man-Withney, Wilcoxon's signed ranks and logistic regression tests were used for statistical analysis.
Results: A total of 31 hypertensive and 31 normotensive patients matched by age and sex participated in this study. Vascular hyperreactivity was present in 77.4%
hypertensive patients and 51.6% normotensive patients. There was a significant association between vascular hyperreactivity and hypertension [OR = 3.2 (1.07 - 9.63), p = 0.034]. The median arterial pressure was higher in responders compared to non-responders in the normotensive group. Age > 45 years, female sex, obesity and family history of hypertension appeared to be associated with vascular hyperreactivity, but only in normotensive patients.
Conclusion: Vascular hyperreactivity appears to be a risk factor for high blood pressure in black Cameroonians. It
appeared to be associated with low blood pressure, age, sex, obesity and family history of hypertension but this was only in the normotensive.
Key words: Vascular hyperreactivity, high blood pressure, black Cameroonian, cold test