Accouchement sur utérus cicatriciel dans les pays à faibles ressources: circuit de prise en charge et devenir materno-foetal
AbstractThe rate of uterine scars, an established risk factor for obstetric morbidity, is increasing worldwide. In developing countries, spontaneous uterine ruptures may constitute 87.4% of cases. Tratment is a problem in modern obstetrics, in particular in these countries. This study aims to describe healthcare chain and materno-fetal follow-up of post-partum women with uterine scar in three university hospitals in the city of Yaoundé in order to highlight morbidity management problems in low-resource countries at the dawn of sustainable development goals. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on the collection of prospective data over a period of six months in 2014. The study included all consenting post-partum women with uterine scar, having given birth to a gestational at a gestational age greater than or equal to a total of 28 weeks of amenorrhea. The sampling was consecutive and exhaustive. Chi square test statistic was applied in all research areas, with a reliability threshold of p≤ 0.05. Data on 252 women with uterine scars, reflecting a rate of 8% (252/3145), were collected during the study period. Prenatal consultations were performed by inadequate staff in an inadequate sanitary structure in 30% of cases. Women were referred due to delivery complications after first admission to an inadequate sanitary structure in 25% of cases (6 uterine ruptures and 7 dead fetus before admission). There was indication for cesarean section/laparotomy on admission in 39% of cases; the rate of vaginal delivery was of 23%; there was indication for trial of scar in 30% of cases, with a success rate of 76.3%. Vaginal delivery was related to parity, a history of vaginal delivery, fetal macrosomia and was inversely related to the number of scars. Maternal mortality was zero and cesarean section was related to materno-fetal morbidity. The poor quality of prenatal consultations and the management of delivery are the main determinants of problems during vaginal birth after cesarean section in our environment. The establishment of a system facilitating access to skilled health care practitioners/adequate health care facilities for pregnant women with uterine scar would improve the prognosis of post-partum women with uterine scar.
Keywords: Uterine scae, healthcare chain, Yaoundé