Descriptive analysis of colorectal cancer in Zambia, Southern Africa using the National Cancer Disease Hospital Database
AbstractIntroduction: Colon cancer is preventable. There is a plethora of data regarding epidemiology and screening guidelines, however this data is arse from the African continent.
Objective: we aim to evaluate the trends of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a native African population based on age at diagnosis, gender and stage at diagnosis.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Cancer Disease Hospital (CDH) registry in Zambia, Southern Africa. Results: 377 charts were identified in the CDH registry between 2007 and 2015, of which 234 were included in the final analysis. The mean age at diagnosis was 48.6 years and 62% are males. Using descriptive analysis for patterns: mode of diagnosis was surgical in 195 subjects (84%), histology adenocarcinoma in 225 (96.5%), most common location is rectum 124 (53%) followed by sigmoid 31 (13.4%), and cecum 26 (11%). 122 subjects (54%) were stage 4 at diagnosis. Using the Spearman rank correlation, we see no association between year and stage at diagnosis (p = 0.30) or year and age at diagnosis (p = 0.92).
Conclusion: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed at a young age and late stage in the Zambian patients.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer, non-communicable diseases, colon cancer, rectal cancer, cancer in Africa