Descriptive analysis of colorectal cancer in Zambia, Southern Africa using the National Cancer Disease Hospital Database

  • Akwi Wasi Asombang
  • Richard Madsen
  • Michelo Simuyandi
  • Gilbert Phiri
  • Matthew Bechtold
  • Jamal Ahmad Ibdah
  • Kennedy Lishimpi
  • Lewis Banda
Keywords: Colorectal cancer, non-communicable diseases, colon cancer, rectal cancer, cancer in Africa

Abstract

Introduction: Colon cancer is preventable. There is a plethora of data regarding epidemiology and screening guidelines, however this data is arse from the African continent.

Objective: we aim to evaluate the trends of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a native African population based on age at diagnosis, gender and stage at diagnosis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Cancer Disease Hospital (CDH) registry in Zambia, Southern Africa. Results: 377 charts were identified in the CDH registry between 2007 and 2015, of which 234 were included in the final analysis. The mean age at diagnosis was 48.6 years and 62% are males. Using descriptive analysis for patterns: mode of diagnosis was surgical in 195 subjects (84%), histology adenocarcinoma in 225 (96.5%), most common location is rectum 124 (53%) followed by sigmoid 31 (13.4%), and cecum 26 (11%). 122 subjects (54%) were stage 4 at diagnosis. Using the Spearman rank correlation, we see no association between year and stage at diagnosis (p = 0.30) or year and age at diagnosis (p = 0.92).

Conclusion: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed at a young age and late stage in the Zambian patients.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, non-communicable diseases, colon cancer, rectal cancer, cancer in Africa

Author Biographies

Akwi Wasi Asombang
Division of Gastroenterology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
Richard Madsen
Department of Statistics, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Missouri, USA
Michelo Simuyandi
Center of Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ), Lusaka, Zambia
Gilbert Phiri
Cancer Disease Hospital (CDH), Lusaka, Zambia
Matthew Bechtold
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Missouri, USA
Jamal Ahmad Ibdah
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Missouri, USA
Kennedy Lishimpi
Cancer Disease Hospital (CDH), Lusaka, Zambia
Lewis Banda
Cancer Disease Hospital (CDH), Lusaka, Zambia
Published
2019-02-18
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 1937-8688