Prevalence of viral and non-viral hepatitis in Menoua Division, West Region, Cameroon: a retrospective hospital-based study
Introduction: the paucity of data on hepatitis' epidemiology in Menoua Division, west region, Cameroon, prompted us to assess the prevalence of viral and non-viral hepatitis in this area.
Methods: a retrospective exhaustive study based on records of patients from January 2008 to June 2014 was conducted in 9 health centres in Menoua Division. Targeted subjects were patients who did not receive hepatitis vaccines for the past year and have been screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or a blood transaminase. Associations between variables were quantified with odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Cochran-Armitage test of linear trend was used for testing proportions of ordinal variables. Fisher's exact test was used for testing the association between 2 qualitative variables when expected counts were less than 5.
Results: the overall prevalence were 9.6% and 6.7% for HBV and HCV respectively. HBV mostly infected people aged 21-30 (12.4%) while the prevalence of HCV increased with age up to 35.4% (p=0.03). A 0.6% co-infection was observed. Thirty percent of positive HBV or HCV had high transaminase while 13% of patients with elevated transaminase showed negative viral serology.
Conclusion: these results show that hospital-based prevalence of HCV and HBV in Menoua Division is under the Cameroon's national range but point out the fact that non-viral hepatitis might be a serious case of concern in this area. There is therefore, a need to identify the risk-factors of non-viral hepatitis.