Prevalence and factors associated with percutaneous injuries and splash exposures among health-care workers in a provincial hospital, Kenya, 2010
AbstractIntroduction: Accidental occupational exposure of healthcare workers to blood and body fluids after skin injury or mucous membrane contact constitutes a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Such pathogens include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and associated factors for percutaneous injuries and splash exposures among health-care workers in Rift Valley provincial hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from October to November 2010. Self reported incidents, circumstances surrounding occupational exposure and post-exposure management were sought by use of interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure) analyses were performed. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Twenty five percent of health-care workers interviewed (N=305) reported having been exposed to blood and body fluids in the preceding 12 months. Percutaneous injuries were reported by 19% (n=305) and splash to mucous membrane by 7.2%. Higher rates of percutaneous injuries were observed among nurses (50%), during stitching (30%), and in obstetric and gynecologic department (22%). Health workers aged below 40 years were more likely to experience percutaneous injuries (OR= 3.7; 95% CI=1.08-9.13) while previous training in infection prevention was protective (OR= 0.52; 95% CI=0.03-0.90). Forty eight percent (n=83) reported the incidents with 20% (n=83) taking PEP against HIV. Conclusion: Percutaneous injuries and splashes are common in Rift Valley Provincial hospital. Preventive measures remain inadequate. Health institutions should have policies, institute surveillance for occupational risks and enhance training of health care workers.
Pan African Medical Journal 2013; 14:10