Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries among Patients Managed at a Teaching Hospital in Rwanda
Background: Oral and maxillofacial injuries have been shown worldwide to be a major cause of disability and orofacial deformity. The magnitude and causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries varies from one country to another or even within the same country depending on prevailing conditions such as socioeconomic, cultural and environmental factors.
Objectives: To assess the magnitude and etiology of oral and maxillofacial injuries in relation to socio-demographic data among patients attending Kigali University Teaching Hospital (CHUK), Dental department.
Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional study recruited a total of 182 subjects who were interviewed to obtained information on socio-demographic data and the cause of the inflicted injuries. Diagnoses of the different types of hard and soft tissue injuries were done by clinical examination of patient and where necessary radiographic investigations were requested to confirm hard tissue fractures. All collected information was recorded in the clinical form. Gathered data was coded and entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 17.
Results: Prevalence of oral and maxillofacial injuries was 16%. Most patients (53.8%) were in 21-30 age group with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The commonest hard tissue injuries sustained were dentoalveolar and mandibular fracture at 59.3% and 19.8% respectively, while trauma to the lip was the commonest (38.7%) soft tissue injury among the patients. Road traffic accident collectively accounted for 59.8% of all the etiological factors of oral and maxillofacial injuries.
Conclusion and recommendations: The prevalence of oral and maxillofacial injuries was 16%. Road Traffic Accident accounted for most of the injuries in the study population. Prevention strategies of maxillofacial injuries among others should emphasize on reduction of road traffic accidents with particular attention to motorcycle and motor vehicle accidents.
Key words: Prevalence, oral, maxillofacial, injuries, Rwanda