The incidence of seed – borne mycoflora of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and its control using Anacadium occidentale and Mangifera indica bark extracts
Seeds of ten (10) Sesamme (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars were tested for seed brone mycoflora in the laboratory. Phytopathogenic fungi viz: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp were found associated with these samples. The percentage of fungal incidence on seeds of ten sesame cultivars ranged from 66.50 - 97.50%, with E8 having recorded the highest percentage incidence, while Off-1 had the least. The different percentages of fungal infection on seeds by the isolated fungi were equally determined. It ranged form 0.00 – 15.50%. The efficacy of aqueous bark extracts of Anacadium occidentale and Mangifera indica to control the radial mycelial growth of the isolated fungi was evaluated. Results show that A. occidentale bark completely inhibited the radial growth of Aspergillus at 60% concentration; while A. indica bark extract significantly (P < 0.05) retarded the radial mycelial growth of Penicillium with highest inhibitory effect at 100% concentration. In vitro application of extracts for the control showed that Cashew (Anacadium occidentale) had more fungitoxic effect on mycelial growth of the fungi than was observed on mango (Mangifera indica). And the two extracts were generally showed more inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth of Aspergillus than was observed on Penicillium sp.
Keywords: Seed borne, mycoflora, sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), extracts, percentage inhibition