Shinyiha noun derivation
This article investigates the derivational processes involving nouns in Shinyiha. It focuses on two main issues: derivation by attaching an affix that changes meaning and a word category (for example, from verb to noun), and derivation by prefixing a stem which has its inherent class prefix. The study also identifies the use of associative phrases to express meanings which could be expressed by derived nouns. It reveals that noun derivation in Shinyiha is a complex phenomenon which involves both simple and complex verbs. It is affected by adding either a prefix, a prefix plus a nominalising suffix or a prefix plus verb extension suffixes. It is noted that the final vowels attached to deverbatives are not default vowels; they contribute to the meaning of the derived noun. The study reveals that one nominalising suffix may induce multiple meanings, depending on the nature of the verb root. The same meaning may be expressed by different suffixes. In addition, associative constructions can occur with infinitives to express agentiveness to compensate for nouns that cannot be derived in a regular way.