Effects of ultrasonic waves on eggshell strength and hatchability of layer-type breeder eggs
Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of exposing layer-type breeder eggs before incubation to ultrasonic waves (ULT). Eggs were subjected to ULT of 117 volts at 40 kHz for up to 15 minutes. Eggshell breaking force (EBF), hatchability and chick hatching weight (CHW) of Balady breeder eggs (Trial 1), and egg weight loss, embryo weight, hatchability and CHW of Leghorn hen eggs (Trial 2) were measured. In Trial 1 the eggs were subjected to seven treatments: non-dipped (control), and dipped for 5, 10 and 15 minutes in a water bath (W5, W10 and W15) or a ULT bath (ULT5, ULT10 and ULT15). In Trial 2 the eggs were subjected to four treatments, a control (ULT0) and the ultrasonic treatments, ULT5, ULT10 and ULT15. In treatments ULT10 and ULT15 the EBF of Balady eggs was significantly reduced while the hatchability of the Balady and Leghorn eggs was significantly reduced by the ULT15 and W15 treatments, compared with the control. Orthogonal contrast (control vs. ULT) indicated that ULT exposure of eggs reduced their EBF significantly. Percentage egg weight loss, embryo weight and CHW was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that exposure of eggs to ULT of 117 volts at 40 kHz for 15 minutes reduced EBF and hatchability of layer-type breeder eggs without altering egg weight loss, embryo weight or CHW.
Keywords: Balady breeders, Leghorn hens, egg weight loss, embryo, hatchability