Neonatal HIV-associated nephropathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related nephropathy is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-1 seropositive children in Africa that presents at any age. To date the youngest patient reported in the literature was from our centre, presenting at 4 months of age. We present here a neonate born to an HIV-1 infected mother on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART), who had vertical transmission of the virus and presented with congenital nephrotic syndrome at three weeks of life. The child was confirmed to have HIV-1 infection at 6 weeks. Kidney biopsy showed features consistent with HIV-associated nephropathy. On commencement of cART and angiotensin converting enzyme antagonist treatment, there was a substantial decrease in proteinuria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HIV-associated nephropathy presenting as congenital nephrotic syndrome.