Development of a Malian food exchange system based on local foods and dishes for the assessment of nutrient and food intake in type 2 diabetic subjects

  • A Coulibaly
  • HT O’Brien
  • I Galibois
Keywords: Mali, food exchange systems, nutrient and food intake, type 2 diabetes


Objective: To develop exchange lists for the assessment of food and nutrient intakes for people with diabetes in Mali.
Design: Based on North American exchange lists, a Malian food exchange system was developed using food composition tables for Mali. Dietary intakes were assessed by two 48-hour dietary recalls. Daily numbers of exchanges were determined for the whole sample and for each gender. Energy and macronutrient intakes obtained by a software-based nutritional analysis of the dietary recalls were compared with the average energy and nutrient values calculated with the exchange lists.
Setting: Centre National de Lutte contre le Diabète.
Subjects: Seventeen male and 40 female adults with type 2 diabetes.
Results: The analysis of food recalls using the Malian exchange system showed that subjects consumed the following numbers of exchanges per day: 2.6 ± 1.5 meat and substitutes, 0.5 ± 0.8 legumes, 0.7 ± 1.2 milk, 8.0 ± 4.1 fat, 8.3 ± 3.0 starch, 1.5 ± 0.9 vegetables, 0.2 ± 0.5 fruit, and 0.0 ± 0.2 sugar-added foods, totalling 1 854 ± 648 kcal, 260 ± 92 g carbohydrate, 56 ± 23 g protein and 63 ± 31 g fat. These results concerning energy and macronutrients did not differ significantly from those obtained from the nutritional analysis of food recalls with software using data from the Food Composition Table for Mali. Compared to women, men consumed significantly larger numbers of exchanges of meat and substitutes, fat, starch, and fruit. No significant differences were found for the intakes of legumes, milk, vegetables and sugar-added foods.
Conclusions: This study allowed the development of Malian food exchange lists and demonstrated their usefulness for the description of the dietary pattern and energy and macronutrient intakes of male and female Malian type 2 diabetic patients.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2078-6204
print ISSN: 2078-6190