Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with type 1 diabetes mellitus in KwaZulu-Natal
AbstractObjectives: The objective of this study was to assess the dietary intake and metabolic control of children with type 1 diabetes.
Design: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out.
Subjects: A total of 30 subjects whose ages ranged from six to ten years were included in the study.
Setting: The study was conducted at the Paediatric Diabetic Clinics at Grey’s Hospital, Pietermaritzburg and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH), Durban, in KwaZulu-Natal.
Outcome measures: Dietary intake was assessed using a three-day dietary record. Metabolic control was assessed using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c).
Results: The mean percentage contributions of macronutrients to total energy as determined by the three-day dietary records were as follows: carbohydrate – 52%; added sucrose – 2%; protein – 16%; fat – 32%. The mean intakes were similar to the recommendations of the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Consensus Guidelines (2002). Micronutrient intake was generally adequate. The mean latest glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for the sample as at the time of the study was 9.7%. Five of the thirty subjects had HbA1c values that were within the recommended levels for children with type 1 diabetes.
Conclusions: The macronutrient intake in this sample was found to be similar to the ISPAD Consensus Guidelines (2002) while micronutrient
intake was adequate in most cases. Overall the sample had poor metabolic control.
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