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Background: Bipolar disorder is highly under-researched in Africa. Existing studies show that racial/ethnic disparities exist for sleep quality. Poor sleep quality in bipolar disorder causes significant morbidity and mortality even during periods of euthymia.
Aim: This study aimed to assess sleep quality and its correlates amongst euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder from Nigeria.
Setting: The study was carried out in a teaching hospital, and state hospital, in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 76 euthymic bipolar patients aged between 18 and 60 years, meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder. Euthymia was defined as having a score of ≤ 5 on the Young Mania Rating Scale and < 8 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
Results: A total of 37 (48.7%) participants had poor quality sleep. Sleep quality was associated with marital status (p = 0.013) and suicide plan (p = 0.047). Participants with good sleep quality had higher total sleep duration, lower time to fall asleep (sleep latency), better subjective quality of sleep, were less likely to use sleep medications and had less daytime dysfunction than participants with poor sleep quality. All p-values were < 0.05. Subjective quality of sleep, ongoing use of sleep medication, daytime dysfunction were independently associated with poor sleep quality.
Conclusion: Poor sleep quality frequently persists during euthymic periods in patients with bipolar disorder. The correlates identified can be targeted for intervention during treatment.