How well does South Africa's National Health A.ct regulate research involving children?
Currently there are no laws in South Africa regulating the rights of research participants. The National Health Act is the first attempt by the legislature to use the law to protect research participants, including children. This article describes the strengths and limitations of the provisions, implications for researchers and research ethics committees, and makes recommendations. Strengths of the Section include that it enables the Minister of Health to issue regulations detailing protections for research participants, it supplements existing law on consent, it introduces the concept of the 'best interests' of the child and it creates procedural safeguards. Limitations of the Section include that it does not set an independent age for consent to research, it focuses on informed consent and not other protections, it is inconsistent with existing or draft legislation and ethical guidelines, and it retains the contested distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'non-therapeutic' research. Poor drafting and inconsistencies also impede interpretation. The implications for researchers are that it facilitates socalled 'non-therapeutic' research on children. However, procedural burdens for obtaining consent are created. Research Ethics Committees (RECs) will have to work with the 'therapeutic' and 'non-therapeutic' distinction as well as new concepts such as 'best interests' of the child, and ensure that consent procedures comply with the Act. We conclude that while the Act is an important development in the law, it is flawed in places. We recommend that amendments be made and that capacity development be provided to stakeholders.