Variegate porphyria in South Africa, 1688 - 1996 - new developments in an old disease
Variegate porphyria, an autosomal dominant inherited trait resulting in decreased activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penuttimate haem biosynthetic enzyme, is characterised clinically by photosensitive skin disease and a propensity to acute neurovisceral crises. The disease has an exceptionally high frequency in South Africa,owing to a founder effect. The specific mutation in the protoporphynnogen oxidase gene sequence which represents this founder gene has been identified. Genetic diagnosis is therefore now possible in families in whom the gene defect is known. However, the exact nature and degree of activity of the porphyria can only be determined by detailed quantitative biochemical analysis of excreted porphyrins. The relative contributions of the acute attack and the skin disease to the total disease burden of patients with variegate porphyria is not static, and in South Africa there have been significant changes over the past 25 years, with fewer patients presenting with acute attacks, leaving a greater proportion to present with skin disease or to remain asymptomatic with the diagnosis being made in the laboratory. The most common precipitating cause of the acute attack of VP is administration of porphyrinogenic drugs. Specific suppression of haem synthesis with intravenous haem arginate is the most useful treatment of a moderate or severe acute attack. Although cutaneous lesions are limited to the sun-exposed areas, management of the skin disease of VP remains inadequate.
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