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Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

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ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

O.T. Abiri, M. Samai, A. Koker, M. Bawoh, H.O. Kwanashie

Abstract


In spite of the myriad of ethno medical uses and agro-feed potential of Jatropha curcas (JC) seeds and the potential for production of biodiesel, toxic properties have been adduced to the plant, especially the seeds. Thus, the current study was done with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to JC poisoning.

The LD50 of the ethanol extract of the JC seed was determined by the method initially described by Lorke. In addition, acute behavioral and CNS toxicity studies of JC including antidotal therapy against JC poisoning were done. The data was analysed using SPSS and results were expressed as mean ± SEM. p < 0.05 was considered significant.

The LD50 of IPJC extract ranged from 177.48 to 288.53 mg/kg (moderately toxic) for the adult female rat, adult male mouse, and young male rat. For the adult male rats, the LD50 values were 565.69 mg/kg (IP, slightly toxic) and >5000 mg/kg (oral, slightly toxic) and the LD50 of the JC extract for the chicks was 28.28 mg/kg (IP, highly toxic). JC produced a fairly dose-dependent behavioral and CNS depressant effects which were reduced by atropine, EDTA and a combination of atropine, sodium nitrite & sodium thiosulphate, and EDTA. Also, these antidotes either singly or in combination reduced mortality among the rats by 25-50%.
In conclusion, the ethanol extract of JC seeds produces behavioral changes in experimental animals possibly in part by CNS depression which were ameliorated by atropine or EDTA and a combination of antidotes. Thus, these antidotes particularly atropine, may be exploited in the management of JC poisoning.




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