Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in Dutsinma Town, Katsina State
Dutsinma town is the administrative headquarters of Dutsinma Local Government. The town is witnessing rapid urban expansion with increasing demand in water use, without expansion in the existing water facilities. The research assessed water quality of selected water sources in Dutsinma town. Five (5) categories of water sources (well, tap water vendors, dam, and borehole) were sampled, in which two samples from each of the water sources were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy season and taken for laboratory analysis. Furthermore, field interview was conducted to supplement the water sample information. The World Health Organization standard (WHO) and the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) for domestic water quality assessment were adopted in the study. ANOVA-F (One way) was adopted in testing the hypothesis. The results indicated that the major sources of water contamination are from urbanization effects such as irrigation/ farming activities around the dam, dumping of refuse in drainage channels, and exposed wells respectively. There is no significant variation in the water quality of selected domestic water sources in Dutsinma town. Laboratory analyses of water samples from the different sources reveals that tap water has pH value (4.61) which is acidic while the rest are within the approved standard. Dam had the lowest electrical conductivity (50.25μ/cm) and 56.15mg/l for total dissolve solute. Nitrate ion appears relatively lower in tap water (0.70mg/l), and sulphate was generally low. Water sourced through water vendors had the lowest chloride (37.28mg/l), and relatively low magnesium concentration in most of the water sources. However, calcium concentration appears lower for all water sources when compared to the WHO and SON standards for water quality. Copper concentration is within tolerable limits with the lowest being 0.27mg/l for both dam and tap sources. However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and further research on lead elements was among some of the key recommendations made.
Keywords: Water quality, Water demand, Dutsinma town, Standards, World Health Organization (WHO), Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON)