Evaluation of sources of drinking water using water quality index in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The study evaluated drinking water quality from four different sources in the study area using Water Quality Index (WQI) method. Thirty-two (32) water samples were collected from Borehole, Well, Tap and Sachet water. The quality of water samples were determined using the physicochemical parameters such as pH, Color, Odor, Taste, Temperature, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Calcium, Bicarbonate, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Sulphate, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Copper, Fluoride. The results indicated that borehole water quality from Dan Amar ward and Makama B ward were rated poor water, Tirwin and Dawaki borehole were rated unsuitable. The well water samples from Hardo was found as poor water, and well from Dan Amar, Tirwin and Makama B and Makama A were unsuitable for drinking purpose. The tap water sample from Tirwin was poor and the tap water samples from Hardo and Dawaki were unsuitable for drinking purpose. All the sachet water samples were found to be excellent. The results also revealed that, the water quality index (WQI) for borehole water samples ranges from 5.34 to 727.75; well water ranges from 0.80 to 532.53; tap water ranges from 27.43 to 516.23 and finally sachet water ranges from 32.17 to 46.27. The calculated WQI indicates that 25% of water samples are excellent for drinking. 46.9% of the samples fall in good class of WQI.
Keywords: Water quality, Bauchi, Borehole, Well, Tap and Sachet water