Determination of elemental concentration of water samples using gamma spectroscopy technique: A case study of Tudun Wadan Dankade, Kano State Nigeria

  • M.N. Musa
  • F.S. Koki
  • S. Ibrahim
  • S. Badamasi
  • M.Z. Musa
  • A. Musa
Keywords: NaI (TI) Detector: Gamma Spectroscopy, Radiation Dose, Annual effective Dose and Radiological Impact Parameter


This research was aimed at investigating the Elemental Analysis of Some Metals composition of twenty (20) water samples from the different sources (Borehole, wells, Irrigation and Tap) within Tudun Wadan Dankade Local Government Area using Gamma Spectroscopy to determine the concentration of the elements present in the water sample using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) detector system. The result of the analysis was compared with the reference permissible limit to ascertain whether or not the water is safe for drinking. The mean radioactivity content obtained for K-40, U-238 and Th-232 were 7.22±0.54 Bq/L, 10.5±1.96 Bq/L and 1.71±0.16 Bq/L from Borehole water, 6.30±0.50, 4.41 ± 0.84 and 1.71 ± 0.16 in Irrigation water, while 7.53±0.62 Bq/L, 2.72±0.62 Bq/L and 3.23±0.22 Bq/L in Tap water and 15.76±1.24 Bq/L, 17.43±3.78 Bq/L in well water respectively. The mean values 5.54nGyh-1, 4.52nGyh-1, 2.59nGyh-1 and 10.08nGyh-1 were obtained for the absorbed dose in water sources samples of Borehole, Irrigation, Tap and well respectively while 0.67mSvy-1, 0.79mSvy-1, 0.60mSvy-1 and 1.93mSvy-1 were obtained for the Annual Effective Doses (AED). Similarly, the radium equivalent (Raq) were 13.50Bq/L, 10.16Bq/L, 5.88Bq/L and 29.59Bq/L in water for all the Borehole, Irrigation, Tap and well water, respectively. The external and internal radiation hazard indices were 0.06, 0.04, 0.02, 0.13 and 0.04, 0.03, 0.01, 0.08 respectively in water sample sources. The values obtained for the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) in (x 10-3) for all the water sources of Borehole, Irrigation, Tap and Well water were 2.35, 2.76, 2.10 and 6.75 respectively. It was found that the values of some exposure rate, radioactivity contents and radiological impact parameters in the study area which were higher than that of the world average values poses a serious health risk to the environment and its inhabitants.


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eISSN: 1597-6343