Determinants of severe periodontal disease among diabetes mellitus patients, attending Ndola central hospital in Zambia
Aim: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with severe periodontal disease among diabetic patients.
Design: Cross sectional study. Study subjects and methods: Diabetes mellitus patients visiting their regularly scheduled medical review at NCH Diabetic clinic participated in the study. Data collection was done using a pretested structured questionnaire and the oral examination was done according to the WHO 1987 Oral Health Surveys. Levels of fasting blood glucose were recorded. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis, level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.
Results: 133 diabetic patients aged 20 to 80 years were enrolled in the study of whom 55.5% were females. A larger proportion of patients with higher education were more affected by bleeding (67.1%) than those with low education (47.9%), (χ2 = 4.47, p=0.035). Proportionately more patients aged 55 years or older (47.4%) had deep pockets compared to 29.1% of those aged less than 55 years, the difference was statistically significant (p=0.040). More than half of the patients who reported brushing <2 times a day (51.9%) had deep pockets compared to 22.2% of those reporting to brush two or more times per day, (χ2 = 11.78, p<0.001).
Conclusion: Older patients and those reporting to brush less than twice per day had deep pockets.
Keywords: Severe periodontal disease, diabetes mellitus, brushing, patients, Zambia