Harmful effects of wastewater disposal into water bodies: a case review of the Ikpoba river, Benin city, Nigeria
Improper disposal of waste water and the problems of addressing challenges from wastewater discharge into water bodies have led to an increase in the rate of wastewater generation. Abattoir wastes, industrial wastes from breweries, agricultural runoffs, and waste water from car wash located close to the Ikpoba River have adverse effects on the water quality. High levels of pollutants in river cause an increase in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). Toxic metals such as Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb make such water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation, aquatic life and even pose a great risk to human health. This article provides an insight into the hazards and economic implications of improper wastewater management and control on the immediate environment using the Ikpoba River in Benin City, Nigeria as a case study. In this review, the assemblage of detailed information with a complete and intensive literature survey was used. It was observed that high economic activities taking place continuously on the Ikpoba River waterfront have contributed significantly to the high level of pollution experienced by the River. Industrial/commercial activities taking place within the metropolis include car wash, washing of rugs, livestock markets, abattoirs, and market waste disposal. However, public enlightenment, setting up proper waste water channels, establishment of wastewater treatment plants and wastewater management plans should be put in place. Therefore, this article emphasizes the need for proper wastewater disposal in the Ikpoba River.
Keywords: wastewater, control, disposal, harmful effects, Ikpoba River, management