Spatio-temporal variation level of heavy metals in surface water and sediment in Tagwai Lake, Minna, Nigeria
The high contamination of aquatic systems with toxic heavy metals is of major concern since the elements are not biodegradable. Heavy metals often get into the water through runoff from farmlands and dumping of effluents from industries into the water bodies. The toxicity of these heavy metals can cause harmful and even lethal effects on the human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of Pb, Cu, Mn, and Fe in both surface water and sediment of Tagwai Lake. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry investigation was carried out on the collected and digested water and sediment samples to determine the extent of these heavy metals contamination in the water. The results showed that the average concentration of heavy metals ranked in the following order: Pb>Mn>Cu>Fe with higher concentration in sediment compared to the water. The correspondence of the mean concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment of the Tagwai Lake with the WHO standard suggests that the mean concentration of Pb, Cu, and Fe lies within the standard range while Mn exceeds the standard range in both the water and sediments. We therefore advocate regular surveillance as a tool for monitoring impacts of anthropogenic activities in the lake to ensure safety of the general populace who depend on it for their livelihood.
Keywords: spatio-temporal, heavy metals, sediments, Tagwai Lake