Tanzania Journal of Health Research

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Gender equitable men’s attitudes and beliefs to reduce HIV risk and gender-based violence in Tanzania

Method Kazaura, Mangi Ezekiel, Dereck Chitama, Eric Mlang’a


Background: While the prevalence of HIV in adults has slightly decreased in recent years, the variations in prevalence and risks to infection among men and women persist. These variations are partly explained by the social and structural conditions that predispose both sexes to HIV infection. Due to psychological and physiological conditions, literature indicates that HIV and gender based violence including intimate violence are related. This study aimed to assess how attitudes and beliefs respond to the spread of HIV and gender-based violence (GBV) in Tanzania.

Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 1,620 adult women and men; with an approximate ratio of 1:2. A Gender Equitable Men’s scale was slightly modified to capture various psychometric domains on HIV related gender norms and attitudes among women and men.

Results: We found a substantial higher proportion of men having positive gender equitable norms and consistently positive attitudes in all four domains (GBV, reproductive health and disease prevention, sexuality and domestic life and child care) we assessed on.

Conclusion: Results from this study may probably imply that now men are taking positive roles in issues of domestic violence, reproductive health and disease prevention, sexuality and in domestic life and child care.

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