Access and utilization of water and sanitation facilities and their determinants among pastoralists in the rural areas of northern Tanzania

  • Elias C. Nyanza Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Bugando Area, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • Ola Jahanpour Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Bugando Area, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • Jennifer Hatfield University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
  • Frank van der Meer University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
  • Lisa Allen-Scott University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
  • Karin Orsel University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
  • Sheri Bastien Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Universitetstunet 3, 1433 Ås, Norway
Keywords: access, water, sanitation, hygiene, pastoralists, Tanzania

Abstract

Introduction: Lack of safe water, sanitation and hygiene remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. Water and sanitation-related improvements are crucial in meeting the Global Sustainable Development Goals. This study was conducted to determine the access, utilization, and determinants of access to sanitation facilities among pastoral communities in rural areas of northern Tanzania.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. The survey included key measures adapted from the Joint WHO/UNICEF Core Questions on drinking-water and sanitation for Household Surveys. An observation checklist was also completed at each household. Geographical positions of the households were recorded using a Global Positioning System.

Results: A total of 175 households participated in the study. More than half (61.7%, n=108) of the participants reported access to an improved water source throughout the year. The majority (50.3%, n=88) of the households reportedly practised open defecation. The multivariate analysis identified that the key determinants to access a sanitation facility at a household were socio-economic status, family size, the presence of under-five years of age in the household, history of diarrhoeal diseases – self-reported of an adult, having ever received education on sanitation and motivation for improvement in defecation place.

Conclusion: There is limited access to water and sanitation facilities in communities in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Individual and community factors are key determinants for a household to own a sanitation facility. Findings from this study indicate a need for interventions to improve access to water and sanitation facilities in the area. 

Author Biographies

Elias C. Nyanza, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Bugando Area, Mwanza, Tanzania
School of Public Health, Lecturer
Ola Jahanpour, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Bugando Area, Mwanza, Tanzania
School of Public Health, Lecturer
Jennifer Hatfield, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, Professor of Global Health
Frank van der Meer, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6

Department of Ecosystem and Public Health and Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; Professor

Lisa Allen-Scott, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, Adjunct Professor
Karin Orsel, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB Canada T2N 4Z6
Department of Ecosystem and Public Health and Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Associate Professor
Sheri Bastien, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Universitetstunet 3, 1433 Ås, Norway
Department of Public Health Science, Associate Profesor.
Published
2018-02-16
How to Cite
NyanzaE. C., JahanpourO., HatfieldJ., van der MeerF., Allen-ScottL., OrselK., & BastienS. (2018). Access and utilization of water and sanitation facilities and their determinants among pastoralists in the rural areas of northern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v20i1.
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1821-9241
print ISSN: 1821-6404